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Lesson by "The Irish People"
PRACTICE WITH "IF" SENTENCES
Some of these
sentences do not have two parts or clauses, but the meaning should
be clear to you. Irish usage is fairly close to English in most situations
calling for the conditional (an modh coinníollach).
Mura mbeadh mo
mhála ann, cén áit an mbeadh sé ann?
liom go mbeadh biseach air féin.
nach mbeidís i Siceágó.
nach mbeidís i Siceágó, dá mbeimis ann
Nach mbeadh sibh
sásta, mura mbeinn ag obair amárach?
díom an mbeinn ag dul abhaile tar éis an cheachta (HYAHK*-tuh).
leis nach mbeinn ábalta bheith (AW*-buhl-tuh ve) in oifig an
phoist roimh (rev) a naoi a chlog.
nua agam, dá mbeadh am go leor (oum goh lohr) inniu chun iad
tar éis bheith breoite, bheadh Seán ábalta cuairt
a thabhairt ort (KOO-ahrt uh HOO-irt OH-ruht) inné.
my bag weren't there, where would it be? Ciaran told me that he would
get better. Perhaps they wouldn't be in Chicago. Perhaps they wouldn't
be in Chicago, if we were there before them. Wouldn't you-all be satisfied
if I weren't at work tomorrow? He asked me would I be going home after
the lesson. I told him that I wouldn't be able to be in the post office
before nine o'clock. I would have new shoes if I had time enough today
to buy them. If you weren't after being sick (hadn't been sick previously),
Seán would have been able to visit you yesterday.
with the conditional forms for the other verbs beside "tá",
go through this practice for "tá":
Cuir Gaeilge ar:
I would be. If she were. Wouldn't they be? We would be. If you weren't.
You-all wouldn't be. If I were. Would we be? If he had money. He wouldn't
have money. They would be afraid. If you weren't afraid.
Dá mbeadh sí. Nach mbeidís? Bheimis. Mura mbeifeá.
Ní bheadh sibh. Dá mbeinn. An mbeimis? Dá mbeadh
airgead aige. Ní bheadh airgead aige. Bheadh eagla orthu. Mura
mbeadh eagla ort.
each one of the above sentences is usually accompanied by another
one, such as in: I would be, if you were here. Or: If you were here,
I would be.
"IF" SENTENCES WITH REGULAR VERBS
All verbs can
express conditions. The rules are the same as for "tá".
With "má", meaning "if", and "mura",
meaning "if not", the condition is one that is possible.
An example: Má chuireann sé an nuachtán ar an
staighre, feicim é (maw* K*IR-uhn shay* un NOO-uhk*taw*n er
un STEYE-re FEK-im ay*); If he puts the newspaper on the stairs, I
The word "má"
causes aspiration of the first consonant of the following verb, but
"mura" causes eclipsis. An example: Mura gcuireann sé
an nuachtán ar an staighre, ní fheicim é; If
he doesn't put the newspaper on the stairs, I don't see it.
with "má" and "mura" for regular verbs:
tú é, íocfaidh tú as; if you break it,
you will pay for it.
sé é, ní fhaca mé é; if he drank
it, I didn't see it.
abhaile, ní fheicfimid d'athair; if we don't run home, we won't
see your father.
sé é sin, creidim é; if he says that, I believe
Note that "má"
does not aspirate the "d" in "deir" and "dúirt".
It causes an "n" sound to precede a verb beginning with
a vowel, "a, e, i, o, u".
With the second
conjugation - verbs like "imigh" - the usage is similar.
ar a sé a chlog, feicim mo chara; if I depart at six o'clock,
I see my friend.
an bruscar, cuirimid sa chistin é; if we don't collect the
trash, we put it in the kitchen.
"DÁ" and "MURA" WITH REGULAR VERBS
When a condition
is not possible, "dá" (or "mura") with
the modh coinníollach express the meaning. Learn these forms
I would put
(K*IR-faw*), you would put
(K*IR-huhk* shay*), he would put
(shee), she would put
we would put
(shiv), you-all would put
(K*IR-hi-deesh), they would put
(K*IR-fee), people would put
Note that the
"f" in the forms is given its usual sound in only two cases,
for "you would put" and for "people would put".
Learn these forms
for "cas" now:
I would turn
(K*AHS-faw*), you would turn
(K*AHS-huhk* shay*), he would turn
(K*AHS-huhk* shee), she would turn
we would turn
(shiv), you-all would turn
(K*AHS-hi-deesh), they would turn
(K*AHS-fwee), people would turn
Try these practice
dá mbeadh a fhios agam cá bhfuil sí. Mura mbeadh
airgead aige, chuirfinn amach é.
would turn here, if I knew where she was. If he didn't have money,
I would put him out.
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