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Lesson by "The Irish People"
WITH REGULAR VERBS (CONTINUED)
Last week, the
forms for "I would put, you would put, etc.," were given.
The negative, the question, the negative question, the "dá,"
and the "mura" forms are similar, but the initial consonant
may be eclipsed instead of aspirated. This resembles the change system
First, for the
(K*IR-hin), I wouldn't put
(K*IR-faw*), you wouldn't put
sé (K*IR-huhk* shay*), he wouldn't put
sí, she wouldn't put
(K*IR-hi-mish), we wouldn't put
sibh, you-all wouldn't put
(K*IR-hi-deesh), they wouldn't put
(K*IR-fee), people wouldn't put
For verbs ending
in a broad consonant, "cas" is an example:
(K*AHS-hin), I wouldn't turn
(K*AHS-faw*), you wouldn't turn
sé (K*AHS-huhk* shay*), he wouldn't turn
sí, she wouldn't turn
(K*AHS-hi-mish), we wouldn't turn
sibh, you-all wouldn't turn
(K*AHS-hi-deesh), they wouldn't turn
(K*AHS-fwee), people wouldn't turn
chasfaí anseo, mura mbeadh solas ar an mballa; people wouldn't
turn here, if there weren't a light on the wall.
For the questions,
for "dá" and for "mura," eclipsis occurs
if the verb begins with a consonant that can be eclipsed.
The simple questions
(GIR-hin), would I put?
(GIR-faw*), would you put?
sé? (GIR-huhk*), would he put?
sí?, would she put?
(GIR-hi-mish), would we put?
sibh?, would you-all put?
(GIR-hi-deesh), would they put?
(GIR-fee), would people put?
For the verb "cas":
(GAHS-hin), would I turn?
(GAHS-faw*), would you turn?
an gcasfadh sé?
(GAHS-huhk*), would he turn?
an gcasfadh sí?,
would she turn?
(GAHS-hi-mish), would we turn?
an gcasfadh sibh?,
would you-all turn?
(GAHS-hi-deesh), would they turn?
(GAHS-fwee), would people turn?
Example: An gcuirfeá
an t-airgead sa bhanc, dá mbeadh am go leor agat?; Would you
put the money in the bank, if you had (enough) time?
The negative question
Nach gcuirfeá? Nach gcuirfeadh sé? Nach gcuirfeadh sí?
Wouldn't I put?, wouldn't you put?, etc.
Nach gcuirfeadh sibh? Nach gcuirfidís? Nach gcuirfí?
Wouldn't we put?, wouldn't you-all put? wouldn't they put?, wouldn't
the negative question is:
Nach gcasfá? Nach gcasfadh sé? Nach gcasfaí?
Wouldn't I turn?, wouldn't you turn?, wouldn't he turn? wouldn't people
and "mura" also cause eclipsis:
(daw* GIR-hin), if I should put, etc.
(daw* GAHS-hin), if I should turn, etc.
if I were not to put, etc.
if I were not to turn, etc.
If the verb begins
with a vowel, such as "a, e, i, o, u," minor differences
occur. Examples, with which you will become familiar during later
sé é (DOHL-huhk* shay* ay*), he would drink it. Nach
n-ólfadh sé?, wouldn't he drink? Dá n-ólfadh
sé, if he were to drink. Mura n-ólfadh sé, if
he weren't to drink.
If the verb begins
with an "f," a "d" precedes it in the declarative,
which is the simplest form:
é (DAW*K-hin ay*), I would leave it. D'fheicfeadh sé
é (DEK-huhk* shay* ay*), he would see it.
RECOGNITION DRILL FOR "IF" AND "IF NOT" SENTENCES
isualize the verb
meaning and who the subject is (I, you, Ciaran, etc.) for these phrases:
sé é. Chreidfeá é. Mura n-ólfaidís
(NOHL-hi-deesh) é. Dá bpógfainn (BOHK-hin) í.
Mura mbeimid ann. Ní stadfadh (STAHT-huh) Séamas. An
scuabfaidh (SKOOP-hee) sibh é? Nach líonfá é?
Mura gcuireann Mairsile (MAHR-shil-e) sa chistin (HYISH-tin) é.
Dá mbearrfaimis (MYAHR-hi-mish) sinn féin.
Key: If he broke
it. You would believe him. If they weren't to drink it. If I were
to kiss her. If we won't be there. Séamas wouldn't stop. Will
you-all brush it? Wouldn't you fill it? If Mairsile doesn't put it
in the kitchen. If we were to shave (ourselves).
Each of the phrases
is one-half of a complete condition and result, such as: Mura n-ólfaidís
é, bheadh tart orthu; if they weren't to drink it, they would
Up to now, the
many forms for the conditional have called for heavy repetitive drilling.
The conditional form or mood is very important in Irish, however,
and must be mastered if you are to be able to express yourself accurately,
understand others, and get the meaning from what you read.
You still need
to learn the second conjugation's conditional, and the conditional
for "is" and for some of the irregular verbs. After that,
there will be intensive conversations and reading exercises to help
you become fluent in the modh coinníollach.
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