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Lesson by "The Irish People"
aitheantais (A-huhn-tish); recognition drill
an pianó. Chrochtaí ar an doras é. Ní
ólaimis mórán bainne. Nach stadadh an traein
ag an stáisiún seo? D'fheiceadh sí na páistí
ag teacht abhaile. D'fhreagróinn Seán dá mbeadh
am go leor agam. Nach scríobhtá chuici? An nglantá
do shílear sa samradh? Nach n-éisteá leis an
All of the sentences
above are in the aimsir ghnáthchaite (gnaw*-HAH-tye), past
habitual tense, except for one.
Key: We used to
practice (on) the piano. It used to be hung on the door. Didn't the
train used to stop at this station? She used to see the children coming
home. I would answer Seán if I had enough time. Didn't you
used to write to her? Did you used to clean your cellar in the summer?
Didn't you used to listen to this program?
For the second
conjugation of verbs, such as bailigh or ceannaigh, the past habitual
is slightly different. Read this series over several times:
(VWAHL-een), I used to gather
(vwahl-EE-taw*), you used to gather
(VWAHL-ee-ohk*) sé, he used to gather
sí, she used to gather
(VWAHL-ee-mish), we used to gather
sibh (shiv), you-all used to gather
(VWAHL-ee-deesh), they used to gather
(VWAHL-ee-tee), people used to gather
The forms resemble
those for the first conjugation (verbs such as dún and bris)
but have a more emphasized (ee) sound in the verb. The forms also
somewhat resemble the modh coinníolach, too, except for the
absence of the (h) sound directly after the basic part of the verb.
For example, "I would gather" is bhaileoinn, but "I
used to gather" is bhailínn.
The negative forms
begin with: ní bhailínn, I didn't used to gather.
start with: an mbailínn? (un MAHL-een), did I used to gather?
The negative questions begin with: nach mbailínn?, didn't I
used to gather?
Now go through
the 32 forms with the verb deisigh, repair or mend.
The first forms
will be: dheisínn ní dheisínn an ndeisínn
If the second
conjugation verb has a broad consonant before the final syllable,
such as ceannaigh or ordaigh, there is no change in pronunciation
or spelling of the word endings, but the "a" remains before
(HYAN-een), I used to buy; cheannaíteá (hyan-EE-taw*),
you used to buy, and so on.
If the verb begins
with a vowel, a "d" precedes the declarative form:
(DOHRD-een), I used to order
(DEYE-reen), I used to get up
Also, in the negative
question, the particle "nach" causes an (n) sound to precede
the verb form. An example: nach n-ordaítí é?
didn't it used to be ordered?
With the verbs
that are syncopated or slightly compressed in sound, the forms resemble
the others except for the effects of the syncopation.
One such verb
is imir, play.
(DIM-reen), I used to play; d'imríteá (dim-REE-taw*),
you used to play.
Another of these
is freagair (FRAG-ir), answer. D'fhreagaínn (DRAG-reen), I
used to answer; d'fhreagraíteá (drag-REE-taw*), you
used to answer.
an aimsir ghnáthchaite
Read these sentences
over aloud or, better still, have someone who is familiar with the
pronunciation read them to you. Picture the activity and the person
or persons doing it. Several future-tense sentences and modh coinníollach
sentences are included.
na fadhbanna? (FEYEB-uh-nuh). Cheannódh sibh é. Ghoidídís
rothair. Nach n-aontaídís leat? D'ordaímis é
sin. An mbailítí an bruscar? Nach n-imríodh sé
peil? Dheisínn gluaisteáin. Nach n-úllmhaítí
an bia gach lá? Líonfaidh Seán an citeal.
you used to explain the problems? You-all would buy it. They used
to steal bicycles. Didn't they used to agree with you? We used to
order that. Did the trash used to be collected? Didn't he used to
play football? I used to repair autos. Didn't the food used to be
prepared everyday? Seán will fill the kettle.
prepositions in Irish are followed by the genitive or possessive.
An example that you have already seen in these lessons is os cionn,
meaning above. Os cionn an bhoird (ohs kyuhn uh VWIRD) means "above
go ceann (goh
KYOUN); to the end of or for the duration of. Examples:
go ceann na cuairte
(nuh KOO-ahrt-ye), for the duration of the visit; go ceann na míosa
(MEES-uh) seo, to the end of this month; go ceann an chogaidh (K*UHG-ee),
for the duration of the war.
It can also mean
"to the top of", as in : go ceann an chnoic, to the top
of the hill.
i gceann (i GYOUN),
at the end of (one meaning). For example: i gceann coicíse
(KEYE-kee-shuh), at the end of a fortnight, in two weeks' time. i
gcionn (i GYUN) means this also.
ar feadh (er fa),
during or along. An example: ar feadh an bhóthair is "along
Beidh mé ann go ceann míosa, I will be there for a month.
sa bhaile i gceann míosa, I will be home at the end of a month.
Nóra ar feadh an lae sin, I saw Nora during that day.
mo lón ar feadh na sráide sin, I got my lunch along
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