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Lesson by "The Irish People"
Learn these verbs
and nouns, and then read the sentences following the lists:
le, ag cabhrú(KOU-roo), cabhraithe (KOU-ruh-he), cabhraíonn
sé(KOU-ree-uhn shay*) le, cabhróidh (KOU-roh-ee) séle;
help, helping, helped, he helps, he will help. This verb is followed
by "le", as in "Cabhraím le Múiris (MWIR-ish),
I help Maurice".
ag béiceadh (BAY*K-uh), béicthe (BAY*K-he), béiceann
sé, béicfidh (BAY*K-hee) sé; yell, shout shouting,
shouted, he shouts, he will shout. Bhéic sédom (VAY*K
shay* duhm), he shouted to me.
ag eitilt (eg E-tilt), eitilte, eitlíonn sé, eitleoidh
sé(et-LOH-ee shay*); fly, flying, flown, he flies, he will
ag adhaint, adhanta (EYE-uhn-tuh), adhnann sé(EYE-nuhn shay*),
adhanfaidh sé(EYE-uhn-hee shay*); kindle or light, lighting,
lit, he lights, he will light.
ag dó, dóite (DOH-i-te), dónn sé(dohn
shay*), dófaidh sé(DOH-hee shay*); burn, scorch, burning,
burnt, he burns, he will burn.
an t-adhmad, an adhmaid (un EYE-mwid); wood, timber, the wood, of
the wood. 1st declension, masculine.
an ordóg, na hordóige (hohr-DOH-i-ge), na hordóga;
thumb. 2nd declension, feminine.
an mhéar (vay*r), na méire (nuh MAY*R-e), na méara;
finger. 2nd declension, feminine.
(LAW*-vwin), an lámhainn, na lámhainne (LAW*-vwin-ye),
na lámhainní(LAW*-vwin-yee); glove. 2nd declension,
an gás, an gháis (GAW*sh); gas, the gas, of the gas.
1st declension, masculine.
an t-iascaire, an iascaire, na hiscairí; fisherman, the fisherman,
of the fisherman, the fishermen. 3rd declension, masculine.
an t-iasc, anéisc (AY*shk), na héisc; fish, the fish,
of the fish, the fish. 1st declension, masculine.
Read the following
sentences, forming a mental picture of the activity and the agent,
without actually translating word for word:
Seán liom, mábheidh séann amárach.
sésuas an staighre dámhac.
t-iasc, níbheadh rud ar bith le n-ithe againn.
ar an eitleán (ET-i-law*n) is mósa domhan (DOH-wuhn).
os cionn (ohs KYUN) an tídhóite.
sa teach seo, ach dhómar gual anuraidh (uh-NOOR-e).
tine ar a séa chlog, ach anois bíonn an aimsir ró-the.
séa mhéar ar an sorn.
leat dádtiocfáthart anseo.
help me if he is here tomorrow. He used to shout upstairs to his son.
If you were to burn the fish, we wouldn't have anything to eat. We
flew on the largest airplane in the world. We will fly over the burned
house. I burn gas in this house, but we burned coal last year. I used
to light the fire at six o'clock, but now the weather is too hot.
He burned his finger on the stove. I would help you if you came over
Notes on the new
words: Another way of saying "help" in Irish is "tabhair
cabhair dom", meaning "give me help." This is another
example of how Irish often expresses an idea with a verb and a noun,
as well as a special verb alone.
to a small group of nouns called the fifth declension. Its forms:
cabhair (KOU-ir), an chabhair, na cabhrach (KOU-rahk*), na cabhracha;
help, the help, of the help, the helps. You have probably seen the
name "An Cumann Cabhrach", which means "The Society
of Help", or "The Aid Society."
is a first conjugation verb, like dún and bris, but in the
present tense "dóigh" is slightly different.
I burn, dónn tú(dohn too), you burn, dónn sé,
sí, dóimid (DOH-i-mid), we burn, dónn sibh, dónn
siad, dóitear (DOH-i-tyuhr), it is burned.
A few other verbs
resemble "dóigh". Clóigh (KLOH-ee), means
"print". Clóitear anseoé; it is printed here.
Reoigh (ROH-ee), means "freeze". Reofaigh sé(ROH-hee
shay*) an t-iasc, he will freeze the fish.
Do not use "adhmaid"
for a clump of trees, which is a "coill" (kwil), a wood
in English. An bord adhmaid (EYE-mwid) is a wooden table.
comes from the word for hand, lámh. The English word "glove"
is also derived from words for hand, but the derivation is not as
Eitilt is one
of a family of words relating to aerial flight. Eite means wing, and
eitleán, an t-eitleán (un TET-i-law*n), na heitleáin
(nuh HET-i-law*-in); airplane, the airplane, the airplanes, is a derived
Iascaire is one
of a few 4th declension words ending in -e and signifying occupation
or job descriptions. Scoláire is another, and cigire (KIG-i-re)
means inspector; na scoláiríand na cigiríare
"ar" can give other meanings to verbs that it follows. For
example, "lig ar" means to pretend.
nach bhfaca séan madra; he pretended that he didn't see the
Lig ort nach bhfuil
túanseo; pretend that you are not here. This differds from
"cuir i gcás," which means "suppose," as
in "Cuir i gcás go bhfuil túar an ngealach (er
uhng AL-uhk*)," suppose that you are on the moon.
ar" means to interfere with someone. "Chuir séisteach
orm," he interrupted me, he broke in on what I was doing.
aitheantais na mbriathra;
recognition drill for verbs
séipéal. D'adhanfainn an tine dámbeadh cipín
agam. Chabhríodh Brian le fear an phoist. Béicfidh sibh
nuair a fheicfidh sibh an bád nua. D'eitil síamach trasna
na farraige. Ligeadh Séamas air go mbíodh sébreoite.
Táséag adhaint na tine anois. Níor chuir sésin
isteach orm gur shroich méan chathair.
The church was
burned. I would light the fire if I had a match. Brian used to help
the postman. You will shout when you see the new boat. She flew out
across the sea. Séamas used to pretend that he was sick. He
is lighting the fire now. That man didn't interrupt me until I reached
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