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Lesson by "The Irish People"
leis an gclaoninsint (GLAY*-uhn-IN-shint); practice with indirect
Read the following
sentences aloud. Do not translate them word for word, but instead
form a mental picture of the action and the agents.
mbeidh séag cur sneachta roimh i bhfad.
fhill síar scoil anuraidh.
liom gan glaoch ar a dhochtúir.
bhfuil an bus in aice an stáisiúin, dámbeifeálasmuigh
go gcloisfeáan chéad traein eile.
méle Réamonn gan teacht anseo amárach.
Brian liom dul abhaile ach gan an doras tosaigh a ligint oscailte.
liom gur cheannaíodh sítroscán sa siopa ilranna
gan na saighdiúiría fhilleadh.
an leabhar a cheannach dom.
says that it will be snowing before long. We heard that she didn't
return to school last year. Mícheál told me not to call
(telephone) his doctor. You would see that the bus is next to the
station, if you were outside the office. We didn't think that you
would hear the next train.
I will tell Réamonn
not to come here tomorrow. Brian would tell me to go home but not
to leave the front door open. Síle told me that she used to
buy furniture in that department store. We prayed that the soldiers
would not return. I will ask him to buy the book for me. Nótaí:
"Lasmuigh (lahs-MWEE) de" means "outside of";
"laistigh (lahsh-TEE) de" is "inside of". "Ilranna"
means "many departments or sections", from "roinn",
a share or part of. "Nár fhille na saighdiúirí"
were the words actually spoken in connection with the next to the
An modh ordaitheach
(un moh OHRD-i-hahk*); the imperative mood
Orders or commands
in Irish are given in several ways beside the simple forms for speaking
directly to one or several persons.
"Las an solas"
means that you want one person, the person being spoken to, to light
the light. "Lasaigían solas" is an order to two or
If you want someone
else to light the light, you would say in English "Let him light
the light" or "Have him light the light". In Irish,
there is a special form for this in every verb:
Lasadh séan solas
Oladh séan tae; let him drink the tea. Ritheadh síabhaile;
have her run home. Ceannaíodh (KAN-ee-ohk*) séan tolg
(TUHL-luhg); have him buy the sofa. Imíodh (IM-ee-ohk*) síleí;
have her depart.
them ___ ", the forms are: lasaidís an solas; have them
light the light. Olaidís an tae; rithidís abhaile; ceannaídís
an tolg; imídís leo.
For ordering ourselves
to do something, which is the equivalent of the English "Let
us ___ ", the Irish forms are:
an solas;ólaimis an tae; rithimis abhaile; ceannaímis
(KAN-ee-mish) an tolg; imímis linn.
There is even
a form for ordering one's self to do something, although it is not
common. It is the same as the present tense, "Lasaim an solas",
which means approximately "Let me light the light" or "I
am going to light the light". It is more common in a few negative
forms, such as "Nácloisimésin"; Don't let
me hear that, I don't want to hear that".
is an imperative for the free form, an fhoirm shaor:
Lastar an solas;
have someone light the light, let the light be lit.
This form is often
a prohibition. For example, the equivalent of "No smoking"
or "smoking prohibited" is "Nácaitear tobac".
Read these complete
lists aloud and picture the effect of each command:
For orders to
refrain from an action, which is the negative command, add, "ná"
(naw*) before the forms above: Nácuirim, nácuir, nácuireadh
sé, nácuireadh sí, nácuirimis, nácuirigí,
If the verb begins
with a vowel, prefix an "h" to it:
an deoch sin; náhóladh sían t-uisce, don't let
her drink the water, make sure she doesn't drink the water.
Examples of usage
for an modh ordaitheach:
abhaile; let's go home. Fanimis anseo; let's stay here. Náseastar
anseo; no standing here.
the forms are:
bíodh sé, bíodh sí, bímis, bígí,
For the regular
verbs, the imperative forms are nearly all regular.
Tar; come, has:
tagaim, tar, tagadh sé, tagadh sí, tagaimis, tagaigí,
has: tugaim, tabhair, tugadh sé, tugadh sí, tugaimis,
tugaigí, tugaidís, tugtar.
Abair; say, has:
abraim, abair, abradh sé, abradh sí, abraimis, abraigí,
In Irish, "to
have" makes use of "tá" with "ag".
Emotions and illnesses need "táwith "ar". The
imperative, as well as the subjunctive for wishing, must have a form
of "tá" in these instances. Examples:
agat; have some bread. Bíodh ceann eile agat; have another
one. Bíodh pláta ag Séamas; let Séamas
have a plate.
ort; be happy. Nábíodh eagla ort; don't be afraid. Nábíodhéad
ort; don't be jealous.
ort; may you be happy. Go raibh biseach air; may he recover. Go raibh
saol fada agat; may you have a long life. Náraibh dóiteán
dea leithead sin agat; I hope you don't have a fire like that.
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