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Lesson by "The Irish People"
leis an forainm coibhneasta
Read the following following sentences aloud, or have someone read
them to you. Form a mental picture of the action and of what is the
an stáisiún raidio a chraol an clár faoi Phádraig
Mac Piarais (PEER-ish).
Thug Eoghan go
dtían t-ospidéal an fear an bhuail an trucailé.
(BROHN-ahk*) a gcéirnínídon chailín a
dtugann sína téipeanna di.
the radio station that broadcast the program about Pádraig
Pearse. Eoghan took the man whom the truck hit to the hospital. Brónach
(the Irish equaivalent of "Dolores") wiull give their records
to the girl to whom she gives the tapes.
Next, review one
verb in several ways and tenses:
an fear a mholann na Spáinnigh (SPAW*-in-yee).
méchuig an mbean a mhol na cláir Iodáileacha.
leis an mbuachaill a mholadh a dhochtúir.
an mbainisteoir nach molfadh m'obair.
was the man who praises the Spaniards. I wrote to the woman who praised
the Italian programs. We talked with the boy who used to praise his
doctor. I will telephone the manager who wouldn't praise my work.
leis an gcigire a molann na múinteoiríé.
leabhair ar mhol scholáiríiad.
feirmeoir nach moladh an rialtas riamhé.
had a meeting with the inspector whom the teachers praise. Books were
prepared which students praised. That's the farmer that the government
the tuiseal tabharthach, or dative:
leis an bpóilín ar dhíol méan ticéad
chóta suas lasmuigh den seomra a raibh méann ar maidin.
anáit ina mbeidh na báid iascaireachta.
Key: I went home
with the policeman to whom I sold the ticket yesterday. I will hang
my coat up outside the room in which I was this morning. That's the
place that the fishing boats will be in.
answers with the dative case:
Cad leis a mbuaileann
túna scoláirí? Le scrúdaithe (SKROO-duh-he)
thug sibh bhur sean-éadaí? Do fhear saibhir (dar SEYE-vir),
a rachaidh túchuig an aerphort? Le Seoirse, má's mian
a bhfuil an teach is mó? Ag an gclann is boichte, sílim.
do you hit the students with? With difficult tests. To whom did you-all
give your old clothes? To a rich man, naturally. Who will you go to
the airport with. With George, if he wishes. Who has the biggest house?
The poorest family, I think.
a useful expression
The words "an
té" (un tay*) mean approximately "he who" or
"the person who" and can serve as those phrases do in English,
except that often in Irish a subject word must be added in the second
thug an leabhar nótaíduit níraibh séi
láthair san iarnóin; The person who gave you the notebook
was not present this afternoon. Note that the subject "sé"
was added in Irish but was not needed in English.
bhfuil láidir nímór dóbheith glic; he
who is not strong must be clever. This is a seanfhocalÉireannach,
or Irish proverb.
preposition "do" is combined to form "don té,"
meaning "to the person who." An example:
bainisteoir an ceann sin don téa gheobhaidh an t-ordúis
mó; The manager will give that one to the person who gets the
Why say or write
"an té" instead of "an duine"? It is a
matter of style to some extent. The proverb above would not seem the
same unless "an té" were to begin it.
itself, you have reached a point now at which you should be conscious
of good style in Irish. You are able to express yourself clearly and
understandably in speech and writing, but there is room for improvement
in the style in which you express yourself. This improvement comes
from speaking with fluent and well-educated cainteoirídúchais,
and from reading the best in Irish literature, such as the classics
and the work of good modern writers. The larger dictionaries, such
as De Bhaldraithe andÓDomhnaill, are also a help, with many
selected ways of expressing ideas in good Irish style.
At all times,
however, remember that lack of polished style or even want of the
exact word should not deter you from speaking or writing. Get the
closest word that you can, or change the form of sentence if you must,
but say or write something in Irish. Is fearr droch-Ghaeilge na dea-Bhéarla.
"as" (un RAY*V-oh-kuhl as);
the preposition "as"
This word means
"from" or "out of" and is part of many idioms
or special expressions that have a meaning different from what the
separate words might indicate.
Some of the simpler
as baile: away
from home, gone. "Cábhfuil Seán?" "As
sías; she resigned, left the job, society or venture.
as a mheabhair
(VYOU-ir); out of his mind, wrong. As in English, this phrase serves
to indicate that you dispute someone else's opinions or views.
as an tslí(tlee);
out of place, inconsistent, unwarranted
as cuimse (KWIM-she);
extraordinary, atrocious, etc.
Bain triail as,
Cad as duit? where
are you from? The answer: Is an Corcaigh mé.
séslán as; he escaped safely, he survived. However:
Cad a tháinig
as? means: Whqt came of it? What happened?
as a chéile; two wins in a row, one after the other. Objects
can be "as a chéile", too. Tríbhord as a chéile;
three tables put together in a row.
astu; they will be startled, (a sudden start will be obtained from
them). Baineadh geit asam; I was startled.
Brisfear as a
phosté; he will be discharged, dismissed, lose his job.
Cuir as an solas;
put out the light.
a chéile; it fell apart.
agam astu; I have confidence in them.
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