Irish Lesson 29
logo

Céad Míle Fáilte!

IRISH GAELIC
LESSON BOARD

Make a real connection to your Irish heritage

Feeling like you could never crack Irish Gaelic?

Break it down into easy Bitesize portions, with the free "Irish for Beginners" email course by Bitesize Irish Gaelic.

Enter your name and email address below to get started (and we'll never spam you):

Lesson by "The Irish People"

Pronunciation Review

The letter "r" is pronounced with two principal sounds in Irish, and both sounds differ from the American pronunciation. If the "r" begins a word and is followed by an "a, o, u", roll the sound by placing the tongue tip near enough to the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth to make the tongue vibrate as you say the "r". Examples: rás, ramhar (ROU-wuhr), raca (RAHK-uh), ród, roc (rohk), rún (roon), rud (ruhd).

Give "r" the same sound when it begins a word and is followed by "e, i", as in: réim (ray*m), reilig (REL-ig), rí (ree), riamh (reev), rith (ri).

The broad "r" sound inside a word or at the end, and near "a, o, u", is not as likely to be rolled. It often resembles the American pronunciation. A double "r" near "a, o, u", is rolled, however, as in: barr (bahr), cearr (kyahr), carraig (KAHR-rig), bearraim (BYAHR-rim), borradh (BOHR-ruh).

Next to an "e, i" inside or at the end of a word, the "r" gets its slender sound. This is perhaps the most difficult Irish sound for Americans. Place the tongue tip near the top of your upper front teeth and form a shallow pocket in the tongue front. Then pronounce "r". The air should blow downwards toward the lower lip as you drop the tongue. Try: fir (fir), beirim (BER-im), litir, féir (fay*r), Máire (MAW*-re), creid (kred), Bríd (breed). Compare "féar" with "féir". The former word has an "r" like the American "r" at its end.

The slender "r" faintly resembles a "d" or "zh" sound in English. In parts of Ireland, a word like "Máire" may sound like (MAW*-zhe).

Slender "r" after a consonant sometimes seems to add a syllable, as in: breá (bir-RAW*).

In Irish, "r" is pronounced in the front of the mouth, never in the back with a guttural rolling as in some other European languages.

Grammar

Up to now, all the verbs that you have studied, with one exception, have been "regular". In a regular verb, the forms are based on the imperative, which you can always recognize in the verb form. For instance, "cuir" (kir) means "Put!" In the past tense, "chuir sé" (k*ir shay*) means "he put". "Chuireann (KIR-uhn) sé" means "he puts", and "chuirfinn" (K*IR-hin) means "I would put". All forms are easily recognizable as belonging to "cuir".

The irregular verbs change more in going from tense to tense, and some change going from affirmative to negative. One irregular verb is "tá". It becomes "níl" and "an bhfuil" in the present, and then changes to "bhí", "ní raibh", and "an raibh" in the past. About ten other Irish verbs are irregular, many fewer than in English, but the Irish verbs change more. We will learn them gradually. The first two are "come" and "go", in the past tense.

"Came" is:
tháinig mé (HAW*-nig may*), I came
tháinig tú, you came
tháinig sé, he came
tháinig sí, she came
thángamar (HAW*NG-uh-muhr), we came
tháinig sibh (shiv), you came
tháinig siad (SHEE-uhd), they came

níor tháinig mé, I didn't come
níor thángamar, we didn't come
níor tháinig tú, etc.

ar tháinig mé?, did I come?
ar thángamar?, did we come?

nár tháinig mé?, didn't I come?
nár thángamar?, did we come? etc.

"Went" is:
chuaigh mé (K*OO-ig may*), I went
chuaigh tú, you went
chuaigh sé, he went
chuaigh sí, she went
chuamar (K*OO-uh-muhr), we went
chuaigh sibh, you went
chuaigh siad, they went
(The word "chuaigh" is pronounced (K*-OO-uh) in parts of Ireland.)

ní dheachaigh mé (nee YAK*-hee may*), I didn't go
ní dheachaigh tú, you didn't go
ní dheachaigh sé, he didn't go
ní dheachaigh sí, she didn't go
ní dheachamar (nee YAK*-uh-muhr), we didn't go
ní dheachaigh sibh, you didn't go
ní dheachaigh siad, they didn't go

an ndeachaigh mé? (un NYAK*-hee may*), did I go?
an ndeachamar? (unNYAK*-uh-muhr), did we go?
an ndeachaigh tú?, did you go?, etc.

nach ndeachaigh mé? (nahk* NYAK*-hee may*), didn't I go?
nach ndeachamar? (nahk* NYAK*-uh-muhr), didn't we go? etc.

Remember that the "ch" next to an "a, o, u" is pronounced by dropping the back of the tongue somewhat while you pronounce the "c" that is in "coat". The result is a guttural sound like that in the German "ach". Don't drop the tongue so far that all you get is an "h" sound. Our phonetic guide employs (k*) for the sound.

Drill

Go through a progressive drill with each of these two verbs. Start with: Ar tháinig mé? Níor tháinig mé. Tháinig tú. Ar tháinig tú? Níor tháinig tú. Tháinig sé. Continue to the last phrase: Tháinig mé. "Went" requires some alertness. Start with: An ndeachaigh mé? Ní dheachaigh mé. Chuaigh tú. An ndeachaigh tú? Ní dheachaigh tú. Chuaigh sé. Continue to the last phrase: Chuaigh mé.

Then join the following phrases to all forms to make sentences: amach; isteach; suas an staighre; síos an staighre; amach sa ghairdín; isteach sa teach; inné; abhaile; inniu.

Remember that "I was going" is "Bhí mé ag dúl", and that "I was coming" is "Bhí mé ag teacht". "I went" and "I came" are this lesson's subject.


Would you like to learn Irish Gaelic with audio pronunciation?

You can really start to learn to speak Irish with Bitesize Irish Gaelic.
It's a full online learning program.

  • Would you like to make a connection with Ireland?
  • And speak the native language of the Irish?
  • Do you find it difficult to learn from reading only text?
Then take the free Irish for Beginners email course by Bitesize Irish Gaelic. Every couple of days, you'll get a mini-series of free Irish language lessons. Each lesson is full of interactive audio recordings.

Learn Irish with Irish for Beginners, by Bitesize Irish Gaelic.

<<back to top of page>>

(c) 1997 The Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.


Home | Word Review Board | Irish Facts & Fun | Audio Central | Sitemap

erins web . erins web ireland . erins web gaelic . erins web weaves
about
.
site map
. privacy statement

© Bitesize Irish Gaelic Ltd. 2014, unless otherwise stated. All rights reserved.
Contact Bitesize Irish Gaelic