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Lesson by "The Irish People"
We will review
some combinations of sounds this week to improve your knowledge of
differences between broad and slender consonants.
gave you the pronunciation of "c" and "g" in broad
and slender form. The slender resembles the initial sound of "king"
and "give", while the broad resembles the initial sound
of "coat" and "go". Lessons 7 and 29 give you
the pronunciation of "r". Review that, and then notice the
difference between: crí (kree, which may sound a little like
"kdee" to you), and croí, which may sound to you
a little like "kuh-REE", with syllables run together.
begins with the slender "c" sound, and "croí"
with the broad. The slender and broad "r" follow naturally.
The "ee" sound at the end is the same for both.
try: gé (also like "gyay"*), as opposed to gaol (which
has a slight resemblance to (gway*l)). The broad "g" in
"gaol" introduces a faint (oo) sound after the "g",
which may put you in mind of the English "w" in a name like
"Gwynn". The lips are not closed in after the "g",
however, so that the English "w" sound is not fully developed
in Irish words like "gaol". Try "gile" (GIL-e)
in contrast to "goile" (with the faint (oo) sound after
(GREE-uhn), with a slender "g", and then "grá",
with a broad "g". In "grá", the tongue
tip is rolled for the broad "r".
We have studied
four of the nine (in addition to "tá") principal
irregular verbs in their past and present tenses:
See: feicim, ní
fheicim; chonaic mé, ní fhaca mé
ní chloisim; chuala mé, níor chuala mé
ní thagaim; tháinig mé, níor tháinig
ní théim; chuaigh mé, ní dheachaigh mé
Here are the others:
ní thugaim; thug mé, níor thug mé, ar
ní fhaighim (nee EYE-im); fuair mé (FOO-ir-may*), ní
bhfuair mé (nee VOO-ir may*), an bhfuair mé?
Say, tell: deirim (DER-im), ní deirim (nee DER-im); dúirt
mé (DOO-irt may*), ní dúirt mé, an ndúirt
Do, make: déanaim
(DAY*N-im), ní dhéanaim (nee YAY*N-im); rinne mé
(RIN-ye may*). ní dhearna mé (nee YARN-uh may*), an
ndearna mé? (un NYARN-uh may*)
Catch, take hold
of, grab: beirim ar (BER-im er), ní bheirm ar (nee VER-im er);
rug (rug) mé ar, níor rug mé ar, ar rug mé
You should be able to reason out the forms not given above. Try: we
told him; we didn't get; did we give?; we don't do; we grabbed him;
he does; she takes hold of the plate.
Key for these:
dúramar leis; ní bhfuaireamar; ar thugamar?; ní
dhéanaimid; rugamar air; déanann sé; beireann
sí ar an bpláta.
We will do intensive
drilling on these verbs to make you able to use them with ease.
Give the English
for these groups:
sé abhaile. Chonaic mé é. Beirimid orthu. Níor
rug sé air. Nach bhfaca tú mé? Cá bhfuair
tú é? Ní fheicimid iad. Chuamar abhaile. Tugann
sé duit é. Níor chuala sibh í. Ní
fhaigheann siad airgead. An ndeir tú é? Rinne mé
é. Ar thug mé duit é? Tagann sé gach lá.
An gcloiseann tú iad? Déanaimid é. Ní
dúirt mé é. Téimid ar an mbóthar.
Note that "deir"
(der), meaning "say" or "tell", changes to "deir
tú" and "deir sé", etc, instead of becoming
"deireann tú", etc.
Also, make sure
that you add "ar" after "beir". In Irish, you
seize or take hold "on" something.
Key to above phrases:
He came home. I saw him. We seize them. He didn't seize it. Didn't
you see me? Where did you get it? We don't see them. We went home.
He gives it to you. You (plural) didn't hear her. They don't get money.
Do you say it? I did it. Did I give it to you? He comes every day.
Do you hear them? We do it. I didn't say it. We go on the road.
Now go from English into Irish:
I got the book.
I come out. Did we see them? They hear her. She went inside. They
get the car. We did the work. Did they seize him? Doesn't he go out?
I don't see the man. I give money. Didn't you come back? Did she hear
you? He says that. We gave you it. Did he say that? We don't do the
work. He doesn't take hold of it rightly.
an leabhar. Tagaim amach. An bhfacamar iad? Cloiseann siad í.
Chuaigh sí isteach. Faigheann siad an carr. Rinneamar an obair.
Ar rug siad air? Nach dtéann sé amach? Ní fheicim
an fear. Tugaim airgead. Nár tháinig tú ar ais
(er ash). Ar chuala sí tú? Deir sé é sin.
Thugamar duit é. An ndúirt sé é sin? Ní
dhéanaimid an obair. Ní bheireann sé air i gceart
We will give further drills on these verbs individually and as a group,
so that you will become proficient in them. They are important in
everyday speech and in the literature.
A Sheáin (uh HYAW*-in), ní fhaca mé (nee AHK-uh
may*) tú le fada anois. John, I didn't see you for a long time
bhfaca tú, a Shéamais? (nahk* VAHK-uh too, uh HAY*-mish)
Níor tháinig mé amach inné ar chor ar
bith (NEE-uhr HAW*-nig may* uh-MAHK* in-YAY* huhr er BI). Didn't you,
James? I didn't come out yesterday at all.
Chuaigh mé féin chuig an ollmhargadh ar maidin (K*OO-ig
may* fay*n hig un oul-VWAHR-uh-guh er MAH-din). Is iontach (OON-tuhk*)
an áit é. I myself went to the supermarket this morning.
It's a wonderful place.
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(c) 1997 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.