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Lesson by "The Irish People"
The groups "oigh"
and "oidh", without a síneadh fada and at the beginning
or middle of a word, sometimes takes an (eye) sound, as in the English
word "bygone." Examples are: oighear (EYE-uhr), ice; foighne
(FEYE-ne), patience; oidhreacht (EYE-rahk*t), heritage; oidhre (EYE-re),
At the end of
a word, these groups often take an (OH-ee) sound, as in: ceannóidh
(kan-OH-ee); imeoidh (im-YOH-ee).
With the verb
"tá", the indirect speech forms for the future tense
allow you to say sentences such as:
He says that he
will be here. Deir sé go mbeidh sé anseo. (der shay*
goh me shay* un-SHUH).
I think that John
won't have the car. Is dóigh liom nach mbeidh an carr ag Seán.
(is DOH-ee luhm nahk* me un kahr eg shaw*n).
We think that
she will be angry. Is dóigh linn go mbeidh fearg uirthi. (is
D)H-ee lin goh me FAR-ruhg IR-ee).
In the case of regular verbs, the future is formed for the short verbs,
such as "dún" (doon), close, in this way:
mé (DOON-hee may*), I shall close
too (DOON-hee too), you shall close
sé, sí (DOON-hee shay*, shee), he, she will close
(DOON-hi-mid), we shall close
sibh, siad (DOON-hee shiv, SHEE-uhd), you, they will close
The negative forms are:
mé (nee GOON-hee may*), I won't close
tú (nee GOON-hee too), you won't close
sé, sí; he, she won't close
(nee GOON-hi-mid), we won't close
sibh, siad, you, they won't close
Note that the
word "ní" causes aspiration of the consonant starting
the verb form.
To ask questions in the future tense:
An ndúnfaidh mé? (un NOON-hee may*), Shall I close?
mé? (nahk* NOON-hee may*), shan't I close? Etc.
(un NOON-hi-mid), Will we close? Etc.
(nahk* NOON-hi-mid), Won't we close? Etc.
Here, the word
"an" causes eclipsis of the consonant starting the verb
The letter"f" in the future form, although not pronounced
as an "f", does cause a pronunciation change. There is a
difference between "dúnaimid" (DOON-i-mid), we close,
and "dúnfaimid" (DOON-hi-mid", we will close.
Make sure that your pronunciation makes this clear.
The verbs with two syllables generally form the future in a slightly
different way. They have an (oh) sound in the word to indicate the
future tense. Here is the method:
(kan-OH-ee may*), I shall buy
(kan-OH-ee too), you will buy. Etc.
mé (nee hyan-OH-ee may*), I shall not buy. Etc.
mé? (un gyan-OH-ee may*), shall I buy? Etc.
we will buy. Etc.
(nee hyan-OH-i-mid), we will not buy. Etc.
(un gyan-OH-i-mid), will we buy? Etc.
Two-syllable verbs ending in -il, -ir, -is, and -in form the future
similarly. For example:
osclóidh mé (oh-SKLOH-ee may*), I shall open
imreoidh mé (im-ROH-ee may*), I shall play
cosnoidh mé (kuhs-NOH-ee may*), I shall defend
inseoidh mé (in-SHOH-ee may*), I shall tell
The irregular verbs are less irregular in the future than in the past
tense, but we will not start on them now. You will recognize "déanfaidh
mé é" (DAY*N-hee may* ay*) immediately as "I
shall do it", but some of the other irregular verbs are a bit
more difficult to recognize in the future tense.
We will do some
recognition drilling for the future tense and other tenses in the
next few weeks. Try these in Irish first:
mé féin. Ólfaidh sé é. Ní
ghlanfaidh mé é. Nach gcaillfidh sibh é? An gceapfaidh
sí é sin? Nach gceannóidh tú rud eile?
Fillfimid abhaile. Ní fhoghlaimeoidh sé go deo é.
Críochnóimid an obair go luath. An ndiolfaidh tú
Key: BYAHR-hee may* may* fay*n. OHL-hee shay* ay*. nee GLUHN-hee
may* ay*. nahk* GEYEL-hee shiv ay*? un GYAP-hee shee ay* shin? nahk*
gyan-OH-ee too ruhd EL-e? FIL-hi-mid uh-VWAHL-e. nee ou-lim-OH-ee
shay* goh dyoh ay*. kree-uhk*-NYOH-i-mid uh OH-bir guh LOO-uh. un
NYEEL-hee too ay*?
Translation: I shall shave myself. He will drink it. I won't
clean it. Won't you lose it? Will she think that? Won't you buy something
else? We will return home. He won't ever learn it. We will finish
the work soon. Will you sell it?
Finally, try these: Feicfidh mé é. Déanfaidh
sé é. Cloisfimid an fear. Déarfaidh sé
liom é. (They are for irregular verbs).
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(c) 1997 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.